Mass Extinctions, Lagerstatten, the Cambrian Explosion and Hominids’ obsession with Fossils: Part Two

Part Two: Lagerstatten

Lagerstatten are localities which are highly remarkable for for either their diversity or quality of preservation, they are rich with varied, well-preserved fossils, representing a wide variety of life from a particular era. To me, in a way this represents pretty much any and every fossil locality that we can find today. Really, we are astoundingly lucky to have any sort of record and deep insight into things that lived MILLIONS of year ago! Any fossil, ‘normally’ or ‘exceptionally’ preserved or not, is extremely important in the fossil record.

The most important lagerstatten are the Gmund, Solhhofen and Holzmaden deposits.

The Gmund is only a few centimetres thick and metres across and is a typical example of an obrution deposit (smothering). It contains well bedded echinoderm fauna, including crinoids. The fossils are preserved in muds, which is not where they would normally live and is puzzling, but other fossils other than echinoderms are not as well preserved. There are however oyster shells, that may represent many generations of the same species which have been exposed at the surface for a long time due to the overturned shells. They were probably all killed by the same kind of event. The shelly fauna may have become buried alive, which was fatal for the oysters, while other organisms could swim or burrow up and escape. This was also fatal for the echinoderms and hence the preservation of these fossils. Sucks to be them.

The Holzmaden deposit is a stagnation deposit where anoxic conditions were favoured due to changes in the hydrologic regime or mobilisation of brines. The site is much larger than the Gmund extending over large parts of Europe, which is important to keep in mind when comparing any lagerstatten i.e. you can’t compare them. Nektonic forms are dominant (plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, ammonites, fish etc.) with horizons of benthic microfauna. This picture is in accord with modern stagnant basins where benthic organisms decrease in size and diversity with decreasing oxygen and large fauna were stranded.

Solnhofen contains Archaeopteryx and medusae formed just before the end of the Jurassic regressive cycle. It extends 90m. In other areas of the unit there are no fossils and if this lagerstatten hadn’t been found the rocks would have probably been called non-fossiliferous. It is supposed that it is a permanently submerged restricted basin and is probably an obrution stagnant deposit (smothering and no oxygen). The most common fossils are crinoids with some reptiles and fish but mainly land animals. The inhabitants of the surrounding area may have become washed into this basin during storm episodes.

Lagerstatten are very different from other exceptional preservation sites like the Burgess shale as these form in many places and lagerstatten in just one. The Burgess shale has now been found in more than one locality which implies that it is more of a ‘time signature’ locality and not a unique physical setting. The Vendian Ediacaran fauna have a very puzzling relationship to the Burgess shale however, because they seem to disappear just as the Burgess is discovered. The fossils are found in sandy storm facies (in geology, a body of rock with particular characteristics) that generally do not preserve soft bodies parts along with turbidite facies. This indicates that the preservation must be an-actualistic in a global sense. Most Precambrian fossil deposits are an-actualistic. There may have been lack of bioturbation to preserve the organisms, and so it is supposed that cyanobacterial mats preserved the Ediacaran fauna and stopped them getting destroyed.

It has been found that where there are lagerstatten, it is likely that the preservation process which allowed them to form was inhibiting to other fossilisation processes. Therefore, in these areas, with the types of environment, or the types of biota encountered in the environment, you would be unlikely to find other biota preserved. So, instead of no fossils at all, at least you have some!

We do know however that few exceptional fossil localities, including lagerstatten, represent accurate pictures of past life at the time. For example, the Burgess shale shows a picture of Cambrian fauna that seemed to lack predators and was considered of little importance until the discovery of exceptionally preserved soft bodied predators. Suddenly we have a completely new perspective on the whole ecosystem with proof Darwinian life had formed by this time. So, the exceptionally preserved fossil on its own cannot give a good impression of life at this time but without it we would have an even greater misconception.

Almost 20% of the entire metazoans for Seposki’s Phanerozoic marine diversity patterns actually come from only three major Palaeozoic lagerstatten! Nearly all of these are soft bodied and have difficult affinities, but their presence and documentation is very important in understanding metazoan evolution. Just imagine what the curve and our current understanding might be like if we did not have this 20% of diversity! It might not shed so much light on aspects such as how much a mass extinction event affected evolution, or the pathway of organisms which do survive them but these factors are important from a palaeontological aspect and also geologically, something I will touch on later.


Above is Sepkoski’s Curve, indicating major marine fauna diversity through the Cambrian to Tertiary. The colours indicate the numbers of families belonging to the Cambrian, Palaeozoic and Mesozoic ( or modern). The numbers indicate the ‘big five’ extinction events: Ordovician-Silurian, Late Devonian, Permian-Triassic, Triassic-Jurassic and Cretaceous-Palaeogene (the dino killer). These will be discussed in more details in a subsequent post.

Fossils such as found in my mapping area (Beinn an Dubhaich, Isle of Skye; NB Dubhaich is pronounced ‘Ben an Du-vach’ as ‘bh’ in Scottish Gaelic (ga-lik) is a ‘v’) in concretions are sort of ‘conservation traps’ and show in a way some exceptional preservation similarities. They can show a range of fossils within a hand sized sphere which have been mixed up and brought together but do not show in that particular specimen any real indication of the environment they lived in. Even the rock they are composed of is different from the substrate as that can be muddy and the nodule is limestone. So, even ‘normal’ preservation may be not very useful unless taken into account with the surrounding and larger scale view of the geology and time.

In this sense, the identification of the fossil in the first place is the best way to determine the environment and not the fact that the fossil is preserved in that particular environment. If there is precipitation of calcite around a nucleation point such as one dead fauna then it is likely that any other dead fauna pieces around it might get preserved and not the others, which is specific and ‘selective’ fossilisation. But then, so is all fossilisation, but the point is that this does not give a good spatial and temporal relationship of the life and evolution at that location at that time. The same with mainly gryphea fossilised in some beds, indicating either an environment which is only beneficial to those fauna, or it could be selective preservation of these because of a certain factor. This can easily be misinterpreted, and could lead to a low diversity interpretation when it could have been high diversity and just not preserved.

Lagerstatten offer a very different kind of exceptional preservation view. Still, I feel that they are very useful in looking into the past, because with more knowledge on how they can be preserved we get an even more in depth geological view of the land at that time such as the climate and events that occurred. In terms of evolutionary occurrences lagerstatten are not so useful in adding to large scale view of the palaeontological record, but they do show us small exciting glimpses of the past.

Recommended Reading:

Schiffbauer, J D and Laflamme, M C, (2012), Lagerstatten through time: a collection of exceptional preservational pathways from the terminal Neoproterozoic through today, Society for Sedimentary Geology, 27(5), Available online:

McGowan, A J and Smith, A B, (2008), Are global Phanerozoic marine diversity curves truly global? A study of the relationship between regional rock records and global Phanerozoic marine diversity, Palaeobiology,  34(1), Available online:


2 thoughts on “Mass Extinctions, Lagerstatten, the Cambrian Explosion and Hominids’ obsession with Fossils: Part Two

  1. Very interesting posts, you have clearly enjoyed writing these!’

    ‘Hominids’ obsession with Fossils’ – well, I’m not surprised, not only are they unusual collectible objects but they have the capacity to fire the imagination and from some of the sources you mention in the first article … it seems it has done so from prehistory! I was fortunate to be brought up near the Yorkshire coast so it was collecting devil’s toe nails, belemnites and ammonites – many happy hours hacking away the cliffs unaware of potential cliff falls and incoming tides! Apart from a kids total and understandable fascination with stone toe nails why do they grip adults and scientists as well? Perhaps it is more fundamental – where we come from and why and not to mention the great scientific and philosophical debates on the age of the earth and evolution!

    The graph too is very interesting, is there a pattern? Can each major and minor extinction be explained? And of course the biggie…when is the next major extinction going to occur… do you know the answers?!

    • Hi Scotfot!
      I think so, it is something engrained in all humans in the urge to understand where we come from!
      As far as your other questions…it is going to be a five part series so I will hopefully be covering these things later on – although whethere I have actual answers I cannot say!

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